The neurosciences are the scientific studies of the nervous system, its structure and mode of functioning, from the molecular level up to the organs, such as the brain, or even of the entire body.

Originally emerging as a branch of biology, the neurosciences have rapidly evolved toward a more interdisciplinary status that is today at the crossroads of biology, science, medicine, psychology, chemistry, IT and mathematics.

One of the great discoveries in neuroscience is cerebral neuroplasticity: The brain structure evolves beyond the effects of age and pathology. This means that the brain can transform at any age and that it is capable of recreating "circuits of communication" (particularly after a lesion). For example, some research shows that a training of mindfulness allows the modification of both the structure of the brain and its functioning.

The cognitive neurosciences aliment research in positive psychology. They study topics such as vigilance, attention, motivation, decision-making, emotions, memory, empathy and use the cerebral imagery.
The research studies for example the role of emotions in the decision-making process that are supposed to be "rational" (as e.g. the buys and sells on the stock exchange) showing that the areas of the brain associated with pleasure or suffering are active during the process.